As of 22 January, no new lava flows had been reported, although lava slowly flowed into Lake Kivu and seismic activity continued. Volcanologists in and around Goma reported that the current lava flow or any future lava flow of this magnitude is highly unlikely to trigger the release of methane and CO2 that is trapped at the bottom of Lake Kivu. It is believed that continuing shocks are due to several activities: magma fluid moving underground; gases moving, rising to the surface; or magma fluid interacting with underground water table - which would explain the large amount of gas that has risen to the surface, transported in steam. Epicentre of the quakes has not determined yet. Hundreds of thousands of people have fled across the border after Mount Nyiragongo began spewing rock and molten lava on Thursday. There have been 47 fatalities so far. Nyiragongo Volcano (Democratic Republic of Congo) Returnees will have to cope with a tide of steaming lava that plowed through the town, razing thousands of homes and killing dozens of people, and plunged into Lake Kivu. Approximately 700 meters of the 2700-meter Goma airstrip have been destroyed. The seismic activity remained relatively constant and unchanging. Help Arrives for Volcano Victims The lava flows damaged 14 villages as they destroyed everything in their It is found on the Kivu part 1. Wednedsay 23rd January, 2002 Nyiragongo Volcano (Democratic Republic of Congo) The eruption went on up to night time and is believed to have calm down later that night though some lava flowed further to Lake Kivu for a few more days. The lava took a long time to cool and it burnt people as they tried to return to their homes. Lone Congolese Volcanologist, working without pay, predicted eruption 45 people had been killed. Disruption in economy trade has taken place and food supply lines have been cut. Tuesday 22nd January, 2002 Wednedsay 23rd January, 2002 In January 2002, fast-flowing basalt lava, (1,000 kilometres wide) poured out of Mount Nyiragongo and into the city of Goma. Numerous houses in the villages of Kasenyi and Bugara (at least 600 people live there) collapsed, others are crossed by the still active fault system. Nyiragongo Volcano (Democratic Republic of Congo) Scores of vehicles headed for Goma through a landscape shrouded in smoke carrying thousands of homeless Congolese seeking to assess the destruction in the lakeside port. Friday 25th January, 2002 According to Bruce Presgrave of the USGS, National Earthquake Information Center there have been an unusual number of tectonic earthquakes in the Goma-Nyiragongo region since ~9 hours after Nyiragongo's alleged initial lava flows at 0500 local time on 17 January. Continuing lava flows threaten fuel storage tanks at the airport. by the eruption as of 18 January. 4. A survey by relief agencies determined that there were approximately 229,000 people in Goma on January 23. There were reports of another volcanic eruption at Mount Nyimuragira, a neighbouring volcano (14 km northwest of Nyiragongo), that had erupted in February 2001. The DR Congo government is expected to select a relocation site — most likely outside the city limits — for the tens of thousands of homeless people now living in Goma. After observing the volcano on 21 January volcanologists stated, "The current phase of the active eruption is finished. Predicting future eruptions of an active volcano such as Nyiragongo will require a far more elaborate monitoring system than the two stations currently in place. Few weak steam vents were visible on the inner crater wall. The 33 tonnes of water-cleansing equipment and bedding provided by Oxfam arrived in neighbouring Rwanda on … About 90 percent of Goma's business district was consumed by lava when Mount Nyiragongo, 12 miles to the north, erupted, sending huge lava flows through the city and cutting it in half. In 1994, five monitoring units were donated by the US Geological Survey's Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (VDAP) to form the Goma Volcano Observatory. 4. According to news Water supplies, reinforced by the ICRC, are partially operational and the water quality is acceptable and there is no concern at this stage over there being sufficient supplies for the population. They said the continuing earth tremors were due to gases, fluid magma moving underground; magma mixing with the underground water table; and activity deep beneath the earth's surface. Women washed and cooked with the toxic waters, despite thousands of dead fish floating on the surface. A fourth fissure opened at 4:00 PM on January 17. There are ongoing tremors over 4.3 on the Richter scale and the possibility of earthquake activity above that level is possible. At 11 sites, families were provided each with two blankets, 1 kg of soap, 1 jerry can, and 1 plastic sheet. The increasing population movements triggered by the severe impact from the volcanic eruption, lava flow smoke and heat plus the concerns caused by the recurring seismic tremors are generating a major humanitarian crisis. Saturday 26th January 2002  exploded as the flows advanced through Goma, cutting a reported 35-70 m The timely delivery of essential relief supplies such as blankets, plastic sheeting, utensils and other goods plus the transport, administrative and support costs and services to initiate this operation, will be critical. Nyiragongo’s 2002 eruption covered Goma, Democratic Republic of the Congo, in lava up to 2 meters deep. The blast happened as people were trying to siphon fuel from the petrol tanks, the eyewitnesses said. The looting of the fuel led to a leak that was ignited by lava from the eruption of Mount Nyiragongo that has caused chaos in the town. In Goma, residents scoured the hardened lava slabs for scorched sheets of corrugated iron for roofs for makeshift dwellings. Two experts in volcanology and geochemistry are due to arrive in Rwanda tomorrow with water sampling devices, temperatures and acidity measurement equipment to provide technical assistance. Food Aid Arrives for Volcano Refugees At least 45 people had died and tens of thousands had been left homeless by lava flows from the 3,469-meter-high Mount Nyiragongo, just 10 kilometers north of Goma since last Thursday. Lava was still flowing into Lake Kivu, but the flow had not expanded beyond the 165-foot wide swath already cut through the city. m/min (1.2-1.8 km/hour) towards the town of Goma, ~10 km S of the volcano. Volcanic lava poured through the biggest city in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo on Friday as tens of thousands of people fled in its wake into neighbouring Rwanda. Nyiragongo Volcano (Democratic Republic of Congo) The Gisenyi airport in Rwanda is capable of accommodating small aircraft. Gaping holes opened up in Goma, normally a city of more than 500,000 but now virtually a ghost town, and molten rock reduced roads and buildings to fiery ash. A seismologist from Japan has arrived to assist the team of volcanologists at Goma in identifying the cause of continuing geologic activity, and to assess possible risks to populations in the area. Sunday 20th January, 2002 Lava flows created fires in the commercial centre. In January 2002, the opening of fissures lower down and directed towards Goma may reflect a new evolution for the volcano with eruptions caused by rifting. Latest reports from Goma and Gisenyi are that the population has been ordered to fully evacuate the immediate area by 20:00 hours local time. Since the morning of 17 January 2002, lava flow was observed on the Rwanda side of the volcano and on the Congolese side, and has reached the town of Goma since then. reportedly moved E towards Rwanda to the town of Gisenyi. Bulldozers are endeavoring to clear pathways through the lava. United Nations officials said they were encouraging refugees to mass at two camps some 12 miles from Gisenyi, where they could be more easily provided with shelter, supplies and sanitation. Looters were siphoning fuel when the station ignited, belching a ball of fire and thick black smoke into the sky over Goma, where rivers of lava have gushed through the city since Thursday's eruption of Mount Nyirangongo. Mount Nyiragongo, located in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, erupted today (January 17, 2002), ejecting a large cloud of smoke and ash high into the sky and spewing lava down three sides of the volcano. Nyiragongo Volcano (Democratic Republic of Congo) The eruption of Mount Nyiragongo on Thursday forced nearly half a million people out of their homes and caused massive destruction. The eruption happened on 17 January 2002. The unrest in the country made it difficult to monitor the volcano and put emergency responses in place. Tens of thousands have fled the city, seeking shelter with families and friends in other Congolese towns and villages. 5. On Jan. 4, it happened again. An eruption began at Nyiragongo on 17 January and, according to news One of these rivers later split into two fingers, one heading towards the airport and the other towards northern residential areas. The following news item was posted 10 months before this week's disaster at Nyiragongo. Two of the city's four hospitals, three out of the 11 health centers and 80 out of Goma's 150 pharmacies were simply buried under two meters of lava. Numbers Affected by the Eruption: 3. In January 2002, fast-flowing basalt lava, (1,000 kilometres wide) poured out of Mount Nyiragongo and into the city of Goma. Tens of thousands of people who fled the volcanic eruption in Congo streamed back across a vast field of steaming lava on Sunday, returning to their ruined town and shunning refugee camps being set up by aid workers. 11 lessons in The geography of Africa: Where is Africa and what are the physical and human features of the continent? [46] The 17 January 2002 eruption of Nyiragongo represents an interesting case study in volcanology, as well as perhaps an important evolutionary step in the history of the volcano. Nyiragongo Volcano (Democratic Republic of Congo) "The current phase of the active eruption is finished. The aim of volcanologists should not be to predict eruptions but to forsee catastrophic events. At the Goma airport, buildings remain entirely intact, however the runway was partially covered. Asked whether the authorities and Goma residents would heed his warnings next time, he chuckled and said: "Certainly. He said continuing earthquakes caused by the settling of the area following the January 17 eruption of Mount Nyiragongo remained the only threat. Small fires continue burning throughout Goma town, with smell of gas reported. Contrary to some reports there are no confirmed cases of cholera. One vulcanologist said he would advise against rebuilding Goma at its present location, due to the danger of further eruptions. Thousands remain homeless and are in need of food, health care and assistance in rebuilding their homes. Saturday 19th January, 2002 Up to half a million were seriously at risk of malnutrition and disease, stranded without food, drinking water or shelter along the shores of Lake Kivu. Reports of the number of deaths and injuries vary; most reports state ~45 people died, possibly as a result of remaining in their homes which burned or collapsed. Red Cross assessment teams say such movements make it difficult to supply accurate figures but it is estimated that 300,000 were displaced by the eruption. Three teams of experts/volcanologists will be traveling to analyze gases being released, to observe the crater, review film footage of crater taken on the 24 of January and observe the massive surface fractures  Although no new lava flows were threatening the city, some scientists feared that lava entering the lake or seismic activity could perturb the lake sufficiently to release significant amounts of carbon dioxide and methane gas lying at the bottom of the lake. Aid Workers Fly to help Volcano Disaster Victims With a number of large cracks present in Goma, the risk of rapid release of CO2/methane gas remains a major concern and a potential threat to the population. Congolese Return to Volcano Devastated Goma By the 21st there were ~12,000 homeless families in Goma. Hundreds of thousands of people left their homes after the Nyiragongo volcano erupted on Thursday, with smoking lava engulfing the town of Goma in the Democratic Republic of Congo, killing an estimated 45 people and destroying homes and streets. The new lava sources was spewing to the southwest, covering one third of the runway at Goma's airport, destroying the city's Roman Catholic cathedral and thousands of homes. Nyiragongo Volcano (Democratic Republic of Congo) Displaced People: Approximately 30,000 (USAID/OFDA field reports) The scientists confirmed that the ash observed in Goma on Wednesday was most likely from the collapse of the inner crater of Mt Nyiragongo. Goma on Fire as Lava Flows Through City In Rwanda, the Federation team reports only around 60,000 people needing assistance. Wednedsay 23rd January, 2002 1.52 S, 29.25 E, summit elevation 3469 m, stratovolcano Sunday 27th January, 2002 Gas samples and thermal waters discharges were collected at Rambo springs about 400 metres from the Bralirwa (Rwanda) along the lake, 8 km East of Gisenyi. Press accounts indicated that volcanologists tentatively suggested that Nyiragongo's volcanism was due to seismicity producing fissures up to several km in length along the E African rift, allowing magma to reach the surface. Lava covered 15 per cent of the city of Goma and destroyed 30 per cent of the city. Saturday 19th January, 2002 0500 local time. Deaths: Approximately 147 (U.N. and USAID/OFDA field reports) Aid workers had encouraged refugees to mass at two sites some 20 km (12 miles) from Gisenyi, where they said it would be easier to provide shelter, supplies and sanitation once aid promised by the international community started to arrive. The humanitarian community will remain vigilant in case of further seismic activity which might force the population to flee once again. The current estimate of the number of the displaced is around 250,000, out of some 350,000 affected population (the UN and USAID/OFDA). The lava flow is reportedly descending in three tracks and has inundated Goma, with reports indicating over 80% of the buildings are destroyed or burning. Nyiragongo Volcano (Democratic Republic of Congo) UN agencies estimated that a total of 100,000 lost their homes in this crisis. A Rwandan volcanologist, who flew over Nyiragongo, said the pressure of the lava stream was falling and several flows from the mountain had now stopped. Monday 21st January, 2002 The key points made in the film are: government and news agencies that were received during the ongoing crisis. Nyiragongo Volcano Eruption in Perspective Nyiragongo Volcano (Democratic Republic of Congo), Earthqaukes Foretold Nyiragongo Eruption. 1.52 S, 29.25 E, summit elevation 3469 m, stratovolcano Nyiragongo Volcano (Democratic Republic of Congo) Homes destroyed: 12,500 households (60,000 to 80,000 people) (USAID/OFDA field reports) Background: Mt. Wrecked cars, twisted roofs and blackened trees lay strewn for miles around Nyiragongo. Nyiragongo Volcanic Eruption 2002. Nyiragongo Volcano (Democratic Republic of Congo) Monday 21st January, 2002 Vulcanologists who flew over Mount Nyiragongo saw through its sulphurous haze a new crater, seven miles below the main volcano. A 10-foot deep crust had formed over the river of molten rock running underneath, forming a bridge for the thousands of residents trying to get home for the first time since the eruption began on Thursday. This time it was worse. The lava flow eventually reached the lake Kivu and subsequently the lake changed colour and its temperature has reached 40 degrees Celsius. Many fuel depots exploded, causing fires in Goma and surrounding villages.It is estimated that 40% of Goma town has been destroyed. About 1,000 tons of food aid was sitting untouched in a United Nations warehouse in Goma while thousands of people made homeless by the volcano eruption went hungry. Some sought refuge in Rwanda, and others fled towards the west, into DRC (towards the town of Sake). 100 Killed in Goma as Lava Ignites Petrol Depot It is estimated that the shoreline subsided by about 5-10 cm. Population movement between Gisenyi and Ruhengeri has stopped. Activity at Nyiragongo is ongoing but currently confined to the crater, where another lava lake has formed about 250 metres (820 ft) below the level of the 1994 lava lake. While the seismic situation appears to be stabilising, further eruptions are feared, possibly under the lake. In Kindu, for instance, it is reported that the day after the eruption, price of salt increased by 300%. Nyiragongo and Nyamuragira volcanoes, about 13 miles and 25 miles northeast of Goma, are the only two active volcanoes in the region. Its eruption in 2002 left more than 100 dead and more than 100,000 homeless in the city of Goma. On January 28, a flight allowed the volcanologists to reach Nyiragongo main crater and make observations of the inner part of the summit crater. The eruption of Nyiragongo on 17/18 January 2002 led to a massive international response following the spontaneous and temporary evacuation of 400,000 people from the city of Goma located on the shore of Lake Kivu. 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