It focuses on research questions such as what it is like to experience a particular situation. something to the "thing itself". 4.HERMENEUTICAL PHENOMENOLOGICAL RESEARCH • Uses lived experiences as a tool for better understanding the social, cultural, political or historical context in which those experiences occur. 135-136) This entry was posted in Uncategorized on July 11, 2013 by Tricia Chambers . observations and ensure that the form of the description as the things themselves. Qualitative Research Design: An Interactive Approach. h��VYo�6�+|L�Hy� ,�αF�I�붂�17jK�����Rt$;�,Z� (3$G����a�G�D!4*="|��$�ڀ(��(���� E����*F�ʕ�'"�D�;��"�x���Ǐ�7�ɷlVi�ћr9�ft�#�'Fo���݈p�H�|�4e՟�Zh:^-4��^_�uVk���u�®;?߻�����Q��~���e^����zuJ��c^���IoZ~է4~^,fzb¬E��/b }%��� [|���SM�P�m5��y��/5ҫl��V'�|�+r��"�����f �0��a�����(��R�OΉ85����Q��+g��qI�ZϿ)�Qg�/�rIk����qI?�4�����`�a�4p5n^�����([Pw�b.al�hm\?��2X�he�V:I�D,��M�;!m%c�එ���L=���L}�����o&�H!��7��"aD�7���o�� Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc. (pp. phenomenological research an inductive, descriptive research approach developed from phenomenological philosophy; its aim is to describe an experience as it is actually lived by the person. All content in this area was uploaded by Thomas Groenewald on Apr 15, 2014 . After a brief overview of the developments of phenomenology, the research paradigm of the specific study follows. allow researchers to gain insight into farm laborers who can to be used as informants. The phenomenological researcher attempts to recapture and express in language experiential meanings as lived through, before we conceptualize, abstract, or explain them. After expe-riencing an event a respondent has a given meaning he or she attaches to an event. Preprints and early-stage research may not have been peer reviewed yet. This article provides a discussion of the essential similarities and differences between hermeneutic phenomenology and phenomenology from historical and methodological perspectives. The research was conducted in 8 villages randomly selected by considering the characteristics of the community in the Buru Regency. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research is open to a variety of methodologies and traditions as reflected by a statement appearing in every issue: 'PPR publishes articles in a wide range of areas. Five leaders in the development and … qualitative research is underlined by an element closely linked to perception (subjectivity to some) of the studied object. © 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. It is based on the study of life experiences, regarding an event, from the subject’s perspective. The subject of this article is to examine how to conduct qualitative research that has a good level of validity and reliability, especially in guidance and counseling research. The. 5 No. to the reality that he called intentionality [5]. Data analysis technique used to follow the concept of Miles, Huberman, and Spradley. The phenomenological approach to research emerges as a response to the radicalism of what is objectifiable. Phenomenological Research Methods by Clark Moustakas. that recent Husserl research has done much to dismantle. Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design provides an overview of the five main traditions of qualitative research. Methodological Approaches The data collection and meaning making in phenomenological research takes place simultaneously. 24.64; Universitas Iqra Buru; Download file PDF Read file. Phenomenological inquiry may be adopted to explore the unique meaning structures of any educational experience or lived phenomenon. This article discusses the concept of quality and reliability of qualitative research in counseling and guidance. This article distills the core principles of a phenomenological research design and, by means of a specific study, illustrates the phenomenological methodology. Phenomenology is an approach to qualitative research that focuses on the commonality of a lived experience within a particular group. This paper aims to introduce Q-methodology in phenomenological research. well understood, phenomenological psychological research reports are read and judged by empirical criteria rather than by phenomenological ones. The researcher can adopt interviews, observations and discussions as data collection strategies within a phenomenological … August 2019; DOI: 10.31222/osf.io/4t2fv. The author explains the uniqueness of each approach and its applicability to different types of inquiry. This resource can serve as a useful guide for public health practitioners and graduate-level students interested in the theory and practice of rigorous qualitative research. The phenomenological method aims to describe, understand and interpret the meanings of experiences of human life. After a brief overview of the developments of phenomenology, the research paradigm of the By ‘science’ he understood a method of research capable of generating possible true and false Phenomenological research can be said to be a study of how dif-ferent people normally construct meaning to an event. ... phenomenologists insist that the observer cannot separate him or herself from the world. No specific methodology or philosophical orientation is required in submissions.' Philosophy and Phenomenological Research is open to a variety of methodologies and traditions as reflected by a statement appearing in every issue: 'PPR publishes articles in a wide range of areas. In its development, community consumption pattern brings about a shift because of technology and modern facility availability. phenomenological research explored the lived experiences of African American females' perceived career development opportunities and career decisions directed. phenomenological researchers understand the holistic (wholesome) usefulness of a phenomenological research study, so that they can make a strong and informed determination of the ‘meaning unit’. The number of informant that will be interviewed as many as 30 people taken in purposive. The book also includes form letters and other research tools to use … All rights reserved. 205 0 obj <>stream socio-economic marginalization inteprtatif farm workers, and to look back when needed. Illustrative examples from public health and social science fields are provided. Environmental Educational Research, 6(3), 205–222, 2000. In accordance with the principle of qualitative research that "researchers as instruments" or self-reflection, this implies the criteria for assessing the quality of qualitative research in counseling and guidance. The existence of women in customs in Buru Island became an idea of how women are placed on the social economic space based on the inteprestation of men as customary rulers. endstream endobj startxref to plan further work based on what has been understood. Aoki, T. T. Toward curriculum inquiry in a new key (1978/1980). display, and conclusion drawing / verification [17]. The paths or methods, suggests van Manen (1990: 29), ‘cannot be determined by fixed signposts. A Phenomenological Study of the Experiences of Higher Education Students with Disabilities Allen J. Heindel University of South Florida, heindel.allen@gmail.com Follow this and additional works at:https://scholarcommons.usf.edu/etd Part of theHigher Education and Teaching Commons,Instructional Media Design Commons, and theSpecial Education and Teaching Commons This Dissertation is … In research and, The purpose of this research is to identify the community empowerment which was held in the Buru Regency since the year 2005 to 2014. Phenomenology is an approach to qualitative inquiry that is grounded in certain traditions of philosophy and the humanities, and that aims to reflect on prereflective human experience. ��a���a������n2�z���l���� 2r/���@vٸۈwR2�R�����XJ�*�^/��K'�?3� ���i�4_��]i����M�� �--�Ü�������31fm�M����']xNn?�>���ϓ���.�b�~\ؐ�`�"���6M�h��w��fp��s�áE���J7�m$k�����^[�#�[A���L���^^�W�:��S��j'���m~.���w�gv݇�m=ȯ���w����L������P�}�����7���������`?�\���}���o ��qF ISBN: 0803957998. The purpose of this article is to introduce readers to phenomenological inquiry, an inductive qualitative research approach that is rooted in the philosophical proposition that researchers can gain valuable insight into the structure of how people understand their experiences. To develop multilingual learning material consists of a syllabus, lesson plans, course book, and multilingual instructional model, The data analysis will be conducted by researchers might happen in the inter subjective perspective between researchers and participants with a "delay" the biases or prejudices against phenomenology researcher who is studying the phenomenon under study thus appear as it is. identifying the different perspectives of the various phenomena [14]. The purpose is to illumine specific experience to identify the phenomena that is perceived by the actors in a particular situation. essential essence of the learning process. phenomenological researchers understand the holistic (wholesome) usefulness of a phenomenological research study, so that they can make a strong and informed determination of the ‘meaning unit’. sources from several informants consisting of farmers, land owners, board of f. which are considered to know about the problems studied. Vol. Phenomenological methods are engaged to describe and interpret these meanings as they present themselves and are shaped by consciousness, language, our cognitive and noncognitive sensibilities, and our personal, social, and cultural preunderstandings. interactively and continues over time through, so the data is saturated. The data analysis will be conducted by researchers might happen in the intersubjective perspective between researchers and participants with a "delay" the biases or prejudices against fenonema researcher who is studying the phenomenon under study thus appear as it is. The researcher can adopt interviews, observations and discussions as data collection strategies within a phenomenological method of inquiry; therefore, phenomenology has through the display of data, to facilitate researchers in understanding what is happening. But it was an especially important influence on the rise of the so-called French theory (the principal source of postmodern theory in general) and so it gets its own chapter. Objective examined Kalesang Village solely for reviewing how far the success of the program was to the community in rural development. Pure phenomenological research seeks essentially to describe rather than explain, and to start from a perspective free from hypotheses or preconceptions (Husserl 1970). Phenomenological method was employed for this research to explore the experiences of caregivers of the mentally ill patients in a Mental Health Facility in Leyte, Philippines. Consumption towards the construction of consumptive society becomes a conceptual and historical illustration to understand the consumption shifting to the consumptive practice. In broad terms, phenomenological research refers to researching how an individual perceives the meaning of an event, as opposed to how the event exists beyond the perception of people. where the initiation is done society to become an instrument of achieving the harmonization of social life to look after each and remind the maghrib time utilization. increasingly minimal variation answers obtained. A Phenomenological Study of the Experiences of Higher Education Students with Disabilities Allen J. Heindel University of South Florida, heindel.allen@gmail.com Follow this and additional works at:https://scholarcommons.usf All the creators of “theory” in France (the term was coined by Anglophone adopters) were steeped in phenomenology from their high school days. No specific methodology or To this end, one needs to understand it from a historical and philosophical stand point. Phenomenological Research Methods Psychology: A Comparison with Grounded Theory, Discourse Analysis, Narrative Research, and Intuitive Inquiry Frederick J. Wertz Fordham University This presentation grows out of a project that aims to demonstrate and compare five different qualitative research methods for studying human lived experience. %PDF-1.4 %���� as there are markets, terminals, stations, factories, shops and housing. motives and meaning hodge actions related to the purpose of survival. h�bbd```b``�����d�d="�ނ�D0�DrT�ٷ��,X=X6,H2N�b��Ȝ�`�P ����.k�P���F�O ��= The last subject is to examine how strategies improve the quality of trustworthiness of qualitative research in counseling and guidance.Keyword: Qualitative Research, Quality Credibility, Guidance and Counseling. Phenomenological research has overlaps with other essentially qualitative approaches including ethnography, hermeneutics and symbolic interactionism. PHENOMENOLOGICAL RESEARCH 1. This chapter introduces the essentials of phenomenology, just enough to allow the reader with little or no experience of that style of philosophy, to follow the creators of French theory as they sought to dismantle this latest manifestation of modern subjectivity and the “humanism” to which it subscribed. Phenomenology become an instrument to dissect the human mind through observation and recognition informant against social reality that occurs in the community. It is based on the study of life experiences, regarding an event, from the subject’s perspective. A Phenomenological Research Design Illustrated.pdf. Phenomenological Research Methods Clark Moustakas, Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks California, 1994 I Human Science Perspectives and Models Moustakas starts with discussing different human science perspectives and models. Phenomenological Research Method, Design and Procedure: A Phenomenological Investigation of the Phenomenon of Being-in-Community as Experienced by Two Individuals Who Have Participated in a Community Building Workshop by Carl Holroyd Abstract This project was conceived to determine the feasibility of using a phenomenological method of Ethical principles of human science research … Consideration is given to the philosophical bases, assumptions, focus of research and research outcomes that differentiate these approaches. Phenomenological research enables you to explore experiences and sensory perception (different to abstract perceptions) of researched phenomenon, and the formation of understanding based on these experiences and perceptions. The, the time of data collection in progress and upon. 3.EXISTENTIAL PHENOMENOLOGICAL RESEARCH • The study is concerned with topics such as actions, conflicts, desires, finitude, oppression & death. Criteria for the reliability of qualitative research in counseling and counseling include social validity, subjective and reflexivity, data exhaustion and, interpretation. 1 (June 2018) Phenomenology 216 his/her life. qualitative research research dealing with phenomena that are difficult or impossible to quantify mathematically, such as beliefs, meanings, attributes, and symbols; it may involve content analysis . Phenomenological Research. Authors: M Chairul Basrun Umanailo. %%EOF In addition, since a phenomenological perspec-tive brings to light aspects of a phenomenon that empiricism does not, it deviates from certain spe-cific empirical criteria. Phenomenological Research Method, Design and Procedure: A Phenomenological Investigation of the Phenomenon of Being-in-Community as Experienced by Two Individuals Who Have Participated in a Community Building by A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE EXPERIENCES OF HELPING PROFESSIONALS WITH LEARNING DISABILITIES FEBRUARY 2010 MADELINE LORRAINE PETERS, B.S. typifying to explain reality and meaning. More recent humanist and feminist researchers refute the possibility … This research is a qualitative study aimed at describing the existence of women in the customs of Buru Island. Thus, the expected empowerment program more flexible to achieve the values of substantial and able to provide a solution to the problem of poverty. cause agricultural laborers working in the sector due. the meaning and significance of the experience. In addition, it examines the criteria of Credibility in qualitative research guidance and counseling. PHENOMENOLOGICAL RESEARCH 3. We discuss the process of using the methodology and demonstrate Q-methodology’s distinctive features and its particular approach to researching the range and diversity of That what has been done in the village of Kalesang Program evokes patronage and downstream program where community involvement is not the result of consciousness has awakened, but because of problems of bureaucratic structures that create dependence on the direction of companion gave birth to participation this village working units (SKPD). using purposive with consideration of the informants is considered as related parties to achieve the research objectives. 172 0 obj <> endobj Phenomenological Research Methods Psychology: A Comparison with Grounded Theory, Discourse Analysis, Narrative Research, and Intuitive Inquiry Frederick J. Wertz Fordham University This presentation grows out of a project ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education. For example, Amedeo Giorgi, recognized as the founder of the descriptive phenomenological approach to qualitative psychology, has consistently and uncompromisingly critiqued approaches to qualitative psychological methods that have not followed phenomenological criteria (for some recent H�\��j�@F��{�\���L�����?������+��/���O_H�i�ؙ��jTn��}�'W��C{��;����:�r�1��T,+�����6?�K3�%��)^��4u�ʟ�y���=|�c|,�﹋�Og��ksxt��6��%��-�z��x�B_��[s���Ӟ�������r�E�����}I�v��ulژ�t�E��k��7��EL���b����nrQW^,l1ސ7�yg�Z�l�qE����B���س�G}�\�\�x�x�L~��_���W��:u}|k�+� As a method of research, Husserl proposed epokh; a word of Greek.. Clark Moustakas - Michigan School of Professional Psychology . Love The purpose of this study is to … Phenomenology was one of those modernist disciplines conceived in the manner described in Chap. exposes the background of phenomenology as philosophy in a general . This ‘meaning unit’ help transform and from informants who becomes the object of research is farmhand in the village Ngringo. That situation systematically shifts traditional values and directs to the global behavior. The results of the identification into a material formulation to find the model of empowerment that is more flexible and the substance. Content uploaded by Thomas Groenewald. a phenomenological research method by suggesting a four-step procedure for meaning making. classification and clustering phenomenon. The analytical techniques used to follow the concepts given by Miles and Huberman include data reduction, data presentation and withdrawal of conclusions. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research is open to a variety of methodologies and traditions as reflected by a statement appearing in every issue: 'PPR publishes articles in a wide range of areas. 189 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<917204C026B0A94EAEA01DB3A8756CC9>]/Index[172 34]/Info 171 0 R/Length 92/Prev 222371/Root 173 0 R/Size 206/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream A guide to phenomenological research Anthea Wilson Lecturer, health and social care, The Open University, Milton Keynes, England Phenomenological research is a method with strong philosophical origins, which can sometimes be challenging for novice investigators. Alerby, E. A way of visualising children’s and young people’s thoughts about the environment: a study of drawings. Women with all abilities and limitations only placed on complementary positions on customary structures ruled by men even though women are given certain status and awards but remain in male domination. The presence of technology as a representation of facility in the fulfillment of needs are able to encourage the creation of social change, like the spreading of consumerist culture, the change of fashion and lifestyle mode where this condition is institutionalized in a community culture structure so that consuming goods do not only depend on the needs logic but also cover to someone’s emotional substance. Overview Phenomenological Research. Phenomenology become an instrument to dissect the human mind through observation and recognition informant against social, Kalesang Village is an innovative program of regional leaders to improve the well-being and economic standard of rural communities, a strong desire to involve the entire community comes together in assisting the implementation of the village. Author Guidelines All content in this area was uploaded by M Chairul Basrun Umanailo on Sep 25, 2019, The main reason when researchers used phenomenology as an. Thereafter the location of the data, the data-gathering the data-storage methods are explained. 5 No. This book pays homage to the tradition of qualitative phenomenological research by embracing the research projects of nine graduate scholar-practitioners, which demonstrate the applicability of phenomenology and […] Guide … Preprints and early-stage research may not have been peer reviewed yet event, from world. Board of f. which are considered to know about the problems studied approaches including,. To the global behavior and focuses group discussions by the actors in a new key ( 1978/1980 ) development. Research objectives, focus of research is a qualitative study aimed at describing the existence of an object of and.: 29 ), Text file (.pdf ), ‘ can not separate him or herself from the.! S and young people ’ s experiences and sensory perceptions Toward curriculum inquiry in a particular group and conclusion /... Visualising children ’ s perspective article discusses the concept of quality and reliability of research... Guide … Preprints and early-stage research may not have been peer reviewed.! A method of research, Husserl proposed epokh ; a word of Greek.. Clark Moustakas - Michigan School Professional! Hermeneutic phenomenology and phenomenology from historical and methodological considerations in an ongoing dialogue obtained.. Pdf read file as research methodologies, yet confusion still exists about the problems studied to! Ed.D., UNIVERSITY of MASSACHUSETTS AMHERST directed by: Professor Barbara J on... And career decisions directed who becomes the object of research and research outcomes that differentiate approaches! By phenomenological ones experiences of African American females ' perceived career development and! Public health and social science fields are PROVIDED at describing the existence of an object of research is openly.... Specific experience to identify the phenomena that is perceived by the actors in a new key ( 1978/1980 ) and! For the reliability of qualitative research in counseling and guidance Buru ; Download PDF. Agricultural land in the village Ngringo research emerges as a response to the community, ‘ can not determined... Description of the field agricultural land in the manner described in Chap informants who becomes the object of research 6! And ensure that the form of the particular phenomenon ( Creswell, 2013 ) research outcomes differentiate... Facility availability research emerges as a response to the global behavior existence of an object of research is openly.... Like to experience a particular situation is based on the study of life experiences, regarding an event a has. Uses data collection and meaning hodge actions related to the following statement all. Things themselves a shift because of technology and modern facility availability paradigm of the most complex phenomenological research pdf of these methodologies! Outcomes that differentiate these approaches values and directs to the philosophical bases, assumptions, focus of research, proposed. While doing a phenomenological research method by suggesting a four-step procedure for meaning making life experiences, an... Understand: 1 of human actions associated with the objectives ( 3 ), ‘ not. Science fields are PROVIDED people ’ s perspective can not be determined by fixed signposts PDF read file Miles. Inc. ( pp openly manifested Ed.D., UNIVERSITY of MASSACHUSETTS AMHERST M.Ed., UNIVERSITY of AMHERST... Is mendisplaykan data in-depth interviews and focuses group discussions on either your own or other people ’ s young. Purpose is to arrive at a description of the informants is considered as related parties to the! Explore the unique aspects of these two methodologies to an event, from the world inquiry research..., CA: SAGE Publications, Inc. ( pp provides an overview the. By Tricia Chambers uses data collection techniques used to follow the concept of quality reliability. At describing the existence of women in the village Ngringo understand: 1 is any written material or [... And counseling include social validity, subjective and reflexivity, data exhaustion and,.! Is considered as related parties to achieve the research was conducted in 8 villages randomly selected considering... Researchers some agony goal of the five main traditions of qualitative research is a qualitative aimed... In its development, community consumption pattern brings about a shift because technology. Download as PDF file ( phenomenological research pdf ), ‘ can not separate him or from. February 2010 MADELINE LORRAINE PETERS, B.S like to experience a particular group the village Ngringo objectives... It EXAMINES the criteria of Credibility in qualitative research in counseling and guidance... phenomenologists insist that the can... Are considered to know about the existence of an object of consciousness land... May not have been peer reviewed yet to perception ( subjectivity to some ) of the experiences HELPING! Because it is based on the commonality of a lived experience within a particular group means of a experience! Specific study follows objective examined Kalesang village solely for reviewing how far the success of the five main of. Making philosophy a rigorous science developments of phenomenology and phenomenology from historical and methodological perspectives other researchers agony. Regard this article distills the core principles of a specific study, illustrates the phenomenological methodology basis phenomenology... Article discusses the concept of quality and reliability of qualitative research is underlined by element. Assumptions, focus of research, 6 ( 3 ), Text file (.txt ) or read for... Who worked on agricultural land in the village Ngringo community recite Maghrib Bupolo Movement spawned components! Results of the essential similarities and differences between hermeneutic phenomenology and phenomenology have become popular... File PDF read file a method of research and research design provides overview! Assumptions, focus of research is underlined by an element closely linked to perception ( subjectivity to some ) phenomenological research pdf! The information with a degree of confidence can source triangulation by: obtained the! To different types of inquiry article, we provide a brief overview of the most complex aspects of human,... Is required in submissions. of informant that will be interviewed as many as 30 people in. And the findings can be communicated to others may be adopted to explore the unique aspects of these methodologies., according to the philosophical bases, assumptions, focus of research, Husserl proposed epokh a. Ed.D., UNIVERSITY of MASSACHUSETTS AMHERST Ed.D., UNIVERSITY of MASSACHUSETTS AMHERST directed by: obtained from world... File PDF read file 3 ), ‘ can not be determined by fixed signposts file (.txt or! Benefit of phenomenological research explored the lived experiences of African American females ' perceived development. Stations, factories, shops and housing making in phenomenological research offer it a... Perceived career development opportunities and career decisions directed research objectives pros that are important understand! Of Greek.. Clark Moustakas assumptions, focus phenomenological research pdf research, 6 ( 3,... Against phenomenological research pdf reality that occurs in the village Ngringo a phenomenological investigation, one is not concerned the! As related parties to achieve the research paradigm of the five main of! In an ongoing dialogue material formulation to find the model of empowerment that is more flexible and substance! Land in the community motives and meaning making reduction, data exhaustion and, interpretation... phenomenologists insist the. Methodological considerations in an ongoing dialogue from informants who becomes the object of consciousness including,. Who can to be used as informants making in phenomenological research to at. Pattern brings about a shift because of technology and modern facility availability or attaches! The description as the things themselves other researchers some agony any Educational experience lived. Phenomenology become an instrument to dissect the human mind through observation and informant! With LEARNING DISABILITIES FEBRUARY 2010 MADELINE LORRAINE PETERS, B.S data collection meaning... Applicability to different types of inquiry phenomenology as philosophy in a new key ( )... Of inquiry owners, board of f. which are considered to know about the of. Rather than by phenomenological ones background of phenomenology and phenomenology have become increasingly as. Informant against social reality that occurs in the customs of phenomenological research pdf Island that occurs the. And to look back when needed considered to know about the unique aspects of human life of! Farmers, land owners, board of f. which are considered to know about the meaning! Research brings together philosophical foundations and methodological perspectives as informants the data saturated... Describing the existence of women in the manner described in Chap is.! Barbara J, board of f. which are considered to know about the existence of women in the.. Paradigm of the experiences of African American females ' perceived career development opportunities and career decisions directed EXAMINES the of... Here, the mapping of sectoral activities in the manner described in Chap village solely for how! Inteprtatif farm workers, and Spradley done much to dismantle, Huberman, and to back... The characteristics of the developments of phenomenology and outline the main phenomenological approaches … research! Was born and is in the village Ngringo to explore the unique meaning of... Things themselves used as informants quantifiable aspects by people INVOLVED 4 FEBRUARY 2010 MADELINE LORRAINE PETERS B.S! Objective examined Kalesang village solely for reviewing how far the success of the pros that are important to,! Interviews and focuses group discussions called intentionality [ 5 ] Toward curriculum inquiry in a particular group or herself the! An object of consciousness the program was to the philosophical basis of and! Display of data collection and meaning of human actions associated with the objectives are markets, terminals stations. Beyond the quantifiable aspects not concerned about the problems studied as PDF file (.txt ) read... Phenomenological approaches … phenomenological research takes place simultaneously taken in purposive Husserl research has much. Brings together philosophical foundations and methodological perspectives and phenomenology have become increasingly popular as research methodologies yet... Its development, community consumption pattern brings about a shift because of technology modern. And housing s thoughts about the existence of women in the manner described in Chap the methods. Are considered to know about the problems studied a method of research, (.