[54] The thick layer of ash that had fallen on some Icelandic pastures and farms at Raufarfell had become wet and compact, making it very difficult to continue farming, harvesting, or grazing livestock.[55]. Late on 20 March 2010 an eruption began at Fimmvörðuháls, an area around 1,000 m elevation in a ~ 2-km-wide pass of ice-free land between Eyjafjallajökull and Mýrdalsjökull. The flank and summit eruption 2010 5. ), This unusual seismic activity, along with the rapid movement of the Earth's crust in the area, gave geophysicists evidence that magma was flowing from underneath the crust into Eyjafjallajökull's magma chamber and that pressure stemming from the process caused (in geophysical terms) the huge crustal displacement at Þorvaldseyri farm. The aim of the study was to evaluate the health of the exposed population compared to control population. Das kleine Island und sein furioser Vulkan: Der Ausbruch des Eyjafjallajökull hielt im Frühling Europa auf Trab, die Aschewolke störte weltweit den Flugverkehr. The molten lava flowed more than 4,000 m (13,000 ft) to the north-east of the fissure and into Hrunagil canyon, forming a lava fall more than 200 m (660 ft) long and slowly approaching Þórsmörk, but had not yet[update] reached the flood plains of Krossá. The crater was inactive during the last 187 years. [62], No human fatalities were reported from the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull. The effects of the eruption were recorded in various places in Europe up to the present day. The participation rate was 72%. The eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in March and April 2010 posed significant challenges for the people of Iceland as well as millions of people across Europe whose airplanes were grounded due to the high concentrations of volcanic ash. The participation rate was ... GHQ-12) measured psychological morbidity. Ausbruch des Eyjafjallajökull, 13. [61], The IES updated the eruption flow rate on 21 April 2010 to an estimation less than 30 cubic metres per second (1,100 cu ft/s) of magma, or 75 tonnes/s, with a large uncertainty. The last historical eruption of Eyjafjallajökull prior to an eruption in 2010 produced intermediate-to-silicic tephra from the central caldera during December 1821 to January 1823 . By the evening of 6 June 2010, a small, new crater had opened up on the west side of the main crater. Chaitén 2008. Respiratory symptoms were more prevalent among those living closest to the volcano. Eruption Characteristics [4] The 2010 Eyjafjallajökull summit eruption lasted 39 days and erupted 0.27 0.08 km3 tephra (uncompacted volume) in four distinct phases [Gudmundsson et al., 2010]. The exposed group reported more symptoms during the last 12 months; morning phlegm in winter, OR 1.5 (95%CI 1.3-1.8) and runny or stuffed nose, OR 1.4 (95%CI 1.2-1.6). Aim: Volcanic eruptions and other natural disasters may affect survivor's physical and mental health. Additional localised disruption continued into May 2010. [69], At the mouth of the crater, the gases, ejecta, and volcanic plume have created a rare weather phenomenon known as volcanic lightning (or a "dirty thunderstorm"). The recent eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull and the largest ash plume associated with the second eruption phase were not unparalleled in either volume or abundance; however, the location was the critical factor because it affected air travel across Europe. It further indicated that the locations of most of the earthquakes in 2009 occurred between 8 to 12 km (5.0 to 7.5 mi) depth east of the volcano's top crater. Meltwater started to emanate from the ice cap around 07:00 on 14 April and an eruption plume was observed in the early morning. THE STUDENT ECONOMIC REVIEW VOL.XXVIII 129 EYJAFJALLAJÖKULL AND THE 2010 CLOSURE OF EUROPEAN AIRSPACE: CRISIS MANAGEMENT, E CONOMIC IMPACT, AND TACKLING FUTURE RISKS ELIN THORA ELLERTSDOTTIR Senior Sophister The 2010 eruptions at Eyjafjallajokull in Iceland struck fear into the hearts of air - line executives and news presenters alike. d) Which area of the island was worst affected by the Lava flow? The recent eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in southern Iceland first began as a 500 m long fissure on 20 March 2010. Sitemap . The eruption was preceded by intense seismicity and high rates of deformation in the weeks before the eruption, in association with magma recharging of the volcano. [45], A new fissure opened on 31 March, around 200 m (660 ft) north-west of the original fissure. [72] The effect also spread beyond Iceland. Natural disasters like volcanic eruptions constitute a major public-health threat. After that, many further vapour explosions occurred. Unlike the earlier eruption phase, the second phase occurred beneath glacial ice. The eruption was in the form of fire fountains and located to the east of the main Eyjafjallajökull ice cap. Immediately before the eruption, the depth of the seismicity had become shallow, but was not significantly enhanced from what it had been in the previous weeks. Photos of the 2010 eruptions by Fred Kamphues, Volcanic Eyjafjallajökull run off: Seljalandsfoss Waterfall (binaural recording optimised for headphones), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=2010_eruptions_of_Eyjafjallajökull&oldid=990444873, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2010, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2010, Articles containing potentially dated statements from April 2010, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2017, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, large-scale disruption to air travel, smaller effects on farming in Iceland. Deformation was occurring at rates up to a centimetre a day since 4 March at various GPS sites installed within 12 km (7.5 mi) from the eruptive site. Eruptionen 2010. This second phase erupted trachyandesite. Appendices 3. The first phase of the eruption lasted from 20 March to 12 April 2010 and was characterised by olivine basaltic andesite lava flowing from various eruptive vents on the flanks of the mountain. The initial visual report of the eruption was at 23:52 GMT, when a red cloud was seen at the north slopes of Fimmvörðuháls mountain pass,[38][39] lighting up the sky above the eruptive site. PARTICIPANTS: Adult (18-80 years of age) eruption-exposed South Icelanders (N=1148) and a control population of residents of Skagafjörður, North Iceland (N=510). An eruption began in South Iceland in late evening of 20 March 2010 at the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic system (also known as Eyjafjöll volcano – Global Volcanism Program Volcano number 1702-02=). Neither phase of the eruption was unusually powerful. This study was conducted during November 2010-March 2011, 6-9 months after the Eyjafjallajökull eruption. [citation needed], Samples of volcanic ash collected near the eruption showed a silica concentration of 58%—much higher than in the lava flows. Design Population-based prospective cohort study. By the morning of 24 May 2010, the view from the web camera installed on Þórólfsfell[57] showed only a plume of water vapour surrounded by a bluish haze caused by emission of sulphurous gases. An ash-loaded eruption plume rose to more than 8 km (5.0 mi), deflected to the east by westerly winds. Eyjafjallajökull 2010 eruption in Iceland: ... respiratory morbidity and mortality and increased irri- ... longer time periods to volcanic ash and gases have been associated with increases in cardiovascular symptoms8 and increased rates of chronic bronchitis and other respira- Near real-time volcanic cloud data. Situated to the north of Skógar and to the west of the larger ice cap Mýrdalsjökull, Eyjafjallajökull covers the caldera of a volcano 1,666 m (5,466 ft) high, which has erupted relatively frequently since the last ice age. Analysis, discussion and main findings 6. [1] The April–May 2010 eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano (Iceland) was characterized by a nearly continuous injection of tephra into the atmosphere that affected various economic sectors in Iceland and caused a global interruption of air traffic. In response to concerns that volcanic ash ejected during the 2010 eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull in Iceland would damage aircraft engines, the controlled airspace of many European countries was closed to instrument flight rules traffic, resulting in what at the time was the largest air-traffic shut-down since World War II. [3] This eruption lasted eight days, from 7 – 15 June of that year, with an ash cloud that would have required additional days to dissipate,[78] and resulted in worldwide abnormal weather and decrease in global temperature over the next few years. [49], After a short hiatus in eruptive activity, and a large increase in seismic activity 23:00 on 13 April and 1:00 on 14 April, a new set of craters opened early in the morning of 14 April 2010 under the volcano's ice-covered central summit caldera. However, the second phase of Eyjafjallajökull's eruption lasted longer than that of Mount Pinatubo. An earthquake swarm began under Eyjafjallajokull volcano in January 2010. Disclaimer: the views expressed on this site do not imply endorsement by IAVCEI or its affiliate organizations. The study reported increased activity that occurred between June and August 2009 (200 events), compared to a total of about 250 earthquakes recorded between September 2006 and August 2009. Weil keine Vergleichswerte existierten, wurde der Flugverkehr über Nord- und Mitteleuropa in weiten Teilen und für mehrere Tage eingestellt. The Eyjafjallajökull volcano (Fig. The volcanic event began in March of 2010 but activity only died down later in May. This study was conducted during November 2010–March 2011, 6–9 months after the Eyjafjallajökull eruption. (a) Simplified geological map of SE Iceland showing location of the Eyjafjallajökull and other volcanic systems in the area. 2010 ). The first phase of the eruption lasted from 20 March to 12 April 2010 and was characterised by olivine basaltic andesite lava flowing from various eruptive vents on the flanks of the mountain. From 14–20 April, ash from the volcanic eruption covered large areas of Northern Europe. During the ice capped Eyjafjallajökull volcanic eruption in April-May 2010, IMO monitored the volcanic activity through various geophysical sensors (seismic, strain, GPS), river runoff from the glacier and the behaviour of the volcanic eruption cloud (see slide show). At around 07:00 on 22 March, an explosion launched eruption columns as far as 4 km (2.5 mi) straight up into the air. Ash ejection from this phase of the eruption was small, rising to no more than 4 km (2.5 mi) into the atmosphere. These two erupting fissures shared the same magma chamber, according to geophysicists. This question is for testing whether or not you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions. A study by the Icelandic Meteorological Office published on December 2009 indicated an increase in seismic activity around the Eyjafjallajökull area during the years 2006–2009. The eruption was in the form of fire fountains and located to the east of the main Eyjafjallaj¨okull ice cap. But the month is still needed, Consequences of the April 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption. [8] Previous eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull have been followed by eruptions at its larger neighbour, Katla. Methods: Six months after the eruption, (fall and winter 2010-11), 1148 exposed South Icelanders and 510 unexposed North Icelanders responded to a questionnaire on recent physical symptoms and questions from the European Community Respiratory Health questionnaire. This was the highest plume since the eruption started. [36] This rise in water temperature was thought to be related to the eruption nearby and was affecting part of the Krossá drainage basin. [21], By 26 February 2010, the global positioning system (GPS) equipment used by the Iceland Meteorological Office[22] at Þorvaldseyri farm in the Eyjafjöll area (around 15 km (9.3 mi) south-east of the location of the recent eruption)[19] had shown 3 cm of displacement of the local crust in a southward direction, of which a 1-cm displacement had taken place within four days. Tephra sedimentation during the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption (Iceland) from deposit, radar, and satellite observations C. Bonadonna,1 R. Genco,2 M. Gouhier,3 M. Pistolesi,4 R. Cioni,5,6 F. Alfano,1 A. Hoskuldsson,7 and M. Ripepe2 Received 22 April 2011; revised 5 October 2011; accepted 6 October 2011; published 16 December 2011. Background: The eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland 2010 posed an opportunity to study health effects of a volcanic eruption in a society with strong infrastructure. In early January 2010, the rate of deformation and the number of earthquakes began to increase. Data were collected at 2 time points: in 2010 and 2013. Beginnend mit dem 20. During the eruption in 2010 radar scans were made every 5 min and the data archived at the Icelandic Meteo-rological Office. This photo was taken at sunrise on a Saturday morning in October, by Ólafur Sigurjónsson who lives in Forsæti III nearby and has done frequent flying across the eruptive area. [76][77] Other notable volcanic eruptions in recent years include the eruption of Mount Pinatubo of 1991 of VEI 6. Hence, there is much speculation that the 2010 eruption may also be followed shortly by activity at Katla. The 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano was characterized by pulsating activity. Fluoride poisoning can start in sheep at a diet with fluorine content of 25 ppm. Therefore, air traffic was grounded for several days. The eruption was declared officially over in October 2010, when snow on the glacier did not melt. : TEPHRA SIZE AND MASS FLOW RATE DURING THE 2010 EYJAFJALLAJöKULL ERUPTION 5645 ash grain sizes larger than 100 microns can be detected by C … Mai 2010. 2007], Eyjafjallajökull in 2010 and lastly Grímsvötn in 2011. 10:00", "Experimental Acute Sodium Fluoride Poisoning in Sheep: Renal, Hepatic, and Metabolic Effects", "Ash from Iceland Volcano Endangers Horses", "Ash Fall Causes South Iceland Farmers Serious Trouble", "Iceland's volcanic ash halts flights across Europe | World news", "Articles < Seismicity < Icelandic Meteorological office", "University of Iceland reports and scientists' quotes", "A survey of early health effects of the Eyjafjallajökull 2010 eruption in Iceland: a population-based study", "Health effects following the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic eruption: a cohort study", "Syndromic surveillance to assess the potential public health impact of the Icelandic volcanic ash plume across the United Kingdom, April 2010", "RAF grounds fighter jets after volcanic dust is found in engines | Home News | News", "Icelandair and the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic eruption in 2010", "Dirty thunderstorm shoots lightning from volcano", The eruption that changed Iceland forever, "Volcano could mean cooling, acid rain: 'Not like Pinatubo' so far, but potential is there", "Icelandic volcano won't affect the world's climate", "Geologist Ari Trausti Guðmundsson answers Iceland volcano questions | IceNews – Daily News", "APOD: 19 April 2010 – Ash and Lightning Above an Icelandic Volcano", "The Cataclysmic 1991 Eruption of Mount Pinatubo, Philippines", Frequently Asked Questions on the Eruption in Iceland – from the Icelandic Met Office, BBC webpage with film of the volcano, taken from 500m from the crater's edge, by Chris Weber on 13 May 2010, Collection of Scientific Earth Observations and Models, Satellite evidence of hot lava flows from an Icelandic volcano (CIMSS Satellite Blog), Description of beginning of current eruption, (March 2010), Icelandic Met Office, Webpages and -links related to 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruptions. About 500 farmers and their families had to escape from the areas of Fljótshlíð, Eyjafjöll, and Landeyjar were evacuated overnight (including a group of 30 schoolchildren and their three teachers[28][29] from Caistor Grammar School in England), and flights to and from Reykjavík and Keflavík International Airport were postponed, but on the evening of 21 March, domestic and international air traffic was allowed again. About 30 minutes played in 18 seconds. The eruption of Eyjafjallajökull was presaged by a series of earthquakes starting in early March. This study was conducted during November 2010-March 2011, 6-9 months after the Eyjafjallajökull eruption.Adult (18-80 years of age) eruption-exposed South Icelanders (N=1148) and a control population of residents of Skagafjörður, North Iceland (N=510). [58], On 21 June 2010, data from seismic recorders in the area indicated that the frequency and strength of earth tremors had diminished, but were continuing. The shutdown had a knock on impact on the economy and cultural events across Europe. Teams from the Icelandic Association for Search and Rescue were stationed at the eruption site as part of standard safety measures and to assist in enforcing access restrictions. The nature of the volcanic hazard – type, frequency, magnitude 21.12.2010 . The second eruptive phase happened under 200 m (660 ft) of glacial ice. It quickly dispersed over Europe. The volcanic events starting in March 2010 were considered to be a single eruption divided into phases. [50] The concentration of water-soluble fluoride was one-third of the concentration typical in Hekla eruptions, with a mean value of 104 mg of fluoride per kg of ash. Due to the large quantities of dry volcanic ash lying on the ground, surface winds frequently lifted up an "ash mist" that significantly reduced visibility and made web camera observation of the volcano impossible. Background : The eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland 2010 posed an opportunity to study health effects of a volcanic eruption in a society with strong infrastructure. The eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano was one of the largest in Europe in recent years. During the initial flank eruption and the main summit eruption that followed, the rate of recorded earthquakes decreased significantly but remained high enough that the main eruption could be predicted and warnings issued. Some Clips & Images of the 2010 eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull Music Credits: Dreaming in 432Hz Unicorn Heads Youtube Audio Library. Between mid-2000 and 2009, earthquakes occurred intermittently at rates of 1–4 events per month, while deformation remained negligible (Sigmundsson et al., 2010). This indicates that the rate at which magma was flowing into the magma chamber roughly equaled the rate at which it was being lost due to the eruption, giving evidence that this phase of volcanic activity reached equilibrium. Craters in autumn. The 2010 Eyjafjallajökull volcano eruption. Cold water from melted ice quickly chilled the lava, causing it to fragment into highly abrasive glass particles that were then carried into the eruption plume. The first phase of the 2010 eruption began late on the evening of 20 March at the Eyjafjallajökull. Participants Adult (18–80 years of age) eruption-exposed South Icelanders (N=1148) and a control population of residents of Skagafjörður, North Iceland (N=510). The eruption was in the form of fire fountains and located to the east of the main Eyjafjallajökull ice cap. This summit eruption had a short phreato-magmatic phase in 1821 December which was followed by a year-long period of intermittent magmatic/phreato-magmatic activity and flooding (Larsen et al. Update on activity in Eyjafjallajökull 2010 Eruption in Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland. Sign In to Email Alerts with your Email Address, Eyjafjallajökull 2010: Respiratory morbidity and symptoms following exposure to a volcanic eruption, Systemic inflammatory profile associated with exposure time to burning sugarcane, Clinico-radiological and functional assessment of respiratory symptomatics with either exposure to biomass fuel smoke or tobacco smoking, Burnt sugarcane harvesting is associated with short and long term alterations in systemic and pulmonary inflammatory markers, 6.2 Occupational and Environmental Health. [13] The Civil Protection Department[14] of the Icelandic Police produced regular reports about access to the area, including a map of the restricted area around Eyjafjallajokull, from which the public was forbidden. Recent (last month) symptoms were more increased, for example cough, OR 2.6 (95%CI 1.7-3.8) and phlegm, OR 2.1 (95%CI 1.3-3.2), eye irritation, OR 2.9 (95%CI 1.8-4.5) and runny or irritated nose, OR 2.0 (95%CI 1.4-2.9). [citation needed], A fissure opened up about 150 metres (490 ft) in length running in a north-east to south-west direction, with 10 to 12 erupting lava craters ejecting lava at a temperature around 1,000 °C (1,800 °F) up to 150 m (490 ft) into the air. [3] By 21 May 2010, the second eruption phase had subsided to the point that no further lava or ash was being produced. However, on March 20, 2010, the lava began to flow and there were several series of small eruptions which ejected volcanic ash into the atmosphere. The aim of the study was to evaluate the health of the exposed population compared to control population. In late summer 2009, a subtle shift at a GPS station on the volcano's flank prompted Sigmundsson and his colleagues to begin monitoring the mountain more closely. The recent eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in southern Iceland first began as a 500 m long fissure on 20 March 2010. This was 10–20 times the average discharge rate in the preceding flank eruption at Fimmvörðuháls. [26], The grounding of European flights avoided about 3.44×108 kg of CO2 emissions per day, while the volcano emitted about 1.5×108 kg of CO2 per day.[27]. Composite map of the volcanic ash cloud spanning 14–25 April 2010, Volume of erupted material and magma discharge, Short- and long-term weather and environmental effects, Measurements made by using maps and measurement tools from Fasteignaskrá Íslandskort, Meteorological Institute of Iceland: Eruption in Fimmvörðuháls mountain pass, Kvöldfréttir Stöðvar Tvö "Viðtal við Ármann Höskuldsson eldfjallafræðing", 2010 eruption series in the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic system, Icelandic Association for Search and Rescue, Air travel disruption after the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption, knock on impact on the economy and cultural events, previous related sequence of eruptions of this volcano, beginning in 1821, Effects of the April 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption, "Volcanic eruptions: Science and Risk Management", "Eruption in Eyjafjallajökull Status Report: 11:00 GMT, 7 June 2010", "Eruption in Iceland's Eyjafjallajökull Over", "Eruption in Iceland – frequently asked questions", "Iceland prepares for second, more devastating volcanic eruption", "BBC Newsnight interview with President Grímsson of Iceland, 20 April 2010", "Scientists picture Icelandic volcano's 'plumbing, "Eruption at the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic system", "Seismic Signs of Magma Pathways through the Crust in the Eyjafjallajökull volcano, South Iceland", "Jarðskjálftahrina undir Eyjafjallajökli", "GPS time series for Eyjafjallajökull and Katla Volcano", UNEP Year Book2011, An Overview of Our Changing Environment, "Caistor children flee as Iceland volcano erupts | Grimsby Telegraph", Volcanic eruption in Eyjafjallaglacier – flights to Iceland are on hold, "Fyrsta vél frá Boston í loftið klukkan hálf fimm", "Litlar líkur taldar á öðru gosi við Eyjafjallajökul", "Volcano Erupts Under Eyjafjallajökull – The Reykjavik Grapevine", "Gosið enn í gangi – Farið að bera á öskufalli", "Ný gossprunga – skráð 01.04.2010 kl. 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