It is part of the A-Train, a constellation of multiple satellites and instruments that follow the same track on polar orbits and cross the equator within seconds to minutes of each other. Most of the less rapidly rising portions of the plume remained lower, at 19-20 km altitude. Neumann van Padang M, 1951. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Get your answers by asking now. ): Academic Press, p. 973-995. There are no samples for Kelut in the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences Rock and Ore collection. Figure 17 shows a view of an eruption at 0030 local time on 14 February. Mount Kelud Mount Kelud is a mountain located in Kediri, East Java. Asked by Wiki User. In Oct-Nov 2007, a new lava dome grew within the lake to form an island, replacing most of the water. Temperatures decreased slightly on 10 February. Asked by Wiki User. A hazard map of Kelud is shown in Fig. During 29 January to 7 February the lake's temperature ranged from 50.1 °C to 51 °C, compared with 47.5 °C on 18 January and 38.5 °C on 8 January. Kelut volcano has been the location of some of Indonesia's most deadly eruptions. Measurements on 8 February indicated that lake pH had decreased to 4.2 from its usual 4.9, and hydrophones in the lake recorded noise at 3x normal levels. European Space Agency (ESA), 2014 (14 February), Kelut volcano grounds air travel, ESA Observing the Earth web site (URL: http://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Observing_the_Earth/Kelut_volcano_grounds_air_travel). According to a news article, about 50,000 people evacuated on 16 October. Other articles where Mount Kelud is discussed: Indonesia: Volcanoes: Mount Kelud (5,679 feet [1,731 metres]), near Kediri in eastern Java, can be particularly devastating, because the water in its large crater lake is thrown out during eruption, causing great mudflows that rush down into the plains and sweep away all that is before them. VSI issued an evacuation warning on 10 February at 1000. Table 4. Information Contacts: VSI; P. Allard, G. Polian, and J-C. Sabroux, CNRS, France; A. Jambon and B. Marty, Univ Paris, France. Additional lahars the next day moved downslope at ~45 km/hour, destroying hundreds of hectares of agricultural land. AFP/Getty Images Read more After more than 200 deaths in the 1966 eruption, a new deeper tunnel was constructed, and the lake's volume before the 1990 eruption was only about 1 million cubic meters. An undated video provides views of a short-lived avalanche down from the new dome's upper walls. The agency BBTKL-PPM conducted a water quality survey to assess impacts of the Kelud eruption in the Yogyakarta area. 2001: January Bull Volc Surv Indonesia, 108: 1-60 (in Indonesian). There is data available for 2 emission periods. Bernard, A., 2000, Geochemistry of the crater lake of Kelut volcano, Indonesia: Essay labeled "in preparation" on the http://www.ulb.ac.be/ website. However, seismicity and hydrophone noise declined that day and remained relatively quiet until the onset of the eruption. In the wake of earlier concern about renewed volcanic activity at Kelut, the VSI reported that during 12-17 February the temperature of Kelut's crater lake decreased and its pH increased. The UN report cited Indonesian media as stating that an eruption could affect as many as ~ 290,000 people (figure 8). During 24-31 October, a series of regional earthquakes occurred, dominated by shallow events and tremor. Kelud (Klut, Cloot, Kloet, Kloete, Keloed or Kelut) is a volcano located in East Java on Java in Indonesia.Like many Indonesian volcanoes and others on the Pacific Ring of Fire, Kelud is known for large explosive eruptions throughout its history.More than 30 eruptions have occurred since 1000 AD. One of Mount Kelud’s largest eruptions took place in 1919. The photos also suggest possible lava seeps and narrow lava flows, although Tom Pfeiffer attributed most of the incandescence to mobile and solidified material, rather than narrow zones occupied by fluid moving lava. Gas plumes, varying in color from white to blue, mark the active vents, and the fractures and rims are blanketed with abundant sublimates. The authors conducted interviews with members of the crisis management team, and undertook a questionnaire-based survey in the settlement nearest to the crater to determine how residents reacted to the crisis and how they thought authorities managed the crisis. Carbon dioxide flow. Kelud Volcano, Indonesia, 30 October 2011(URL: http://www.oysteinlundandersen.com/Volcanoes/Kelud/Kelud-Volcano-Indonesia-October-2011.html). The billowing clouds appeared to contain minor ash; they vented from the dome upper area or side, and accompanied numerous steaming bombs, which from their arcing trails, seemed destined to land within the crater. Mount Kelud is one of the most active volcanoes in Indonesia and notorious for its violent and destructive eruptions. 1 2 3. Volcano eruption Mount Kelud , Indonesia Amazing Lightning flashes video. Pungent odors were absent during his visit. Three short subsections follow. 2007 eruption and crisis management revisited. How many candles are on a Hanukkah menorah? Products of Kelud include: lava domes and flows, tephra falls, pyroclastic flows, volcanic ash and lahars. Seismicity at Kelut volcano during January and into 13 February 2014. Thus, on 8 November 2007, Indonesian authorities decided to end the emergency phase. The process was devoid of large violent steam explosions of the kind often associated with molten lava extruding into a lake. CALIOP data revealed that the Kelut ash cloud was generally at an altitude of 18-19 km, with some cloud/ash material reaching a maximum height of ~26 km. The newly exposed dome surface was 150-210°C. Unpublished PhD thesis, Victoria Univ of Wellington, 460 p. Zaennudin A, Dana I N, Wahyudin D, 1992. By 0600 on 14 February, BNPB reported that the number of displaced people reached 100,248, but the report also noted that volcanic activity had declined. The area of uplift was limited to the very top of Kelut and was only a few hundred meters wide. An 18 February report noted that a total of seven people in Malang had died, and that the ashfall had affected cattle health and dairy production, farms, and the water supply. A. Morphology Kelud This volcano is included in the type stratovulkan (strato-volcano) with characteristics of an explosive eruption. It climbed after that, reaching 354 ppm in the last (11 November) measurement, a value taken about a week after the dome broke the lake surface. Visitors and residents were prohibited from approaching the crater within a radius of 5 km; residents outside of the 5-km restricted zone were permitted to return home. The release of high-temperature gases through these fractures may reflect either late (passive) degassing of cooling pyroclastic deposits from the February eruption or active degassing of a shallow magma body (residual intrusion?). Kelud volcano (also spelled Kelut) is one of East Java's most active volcanoes. Philibosian and Simons (2011) discussed satellite-borne (Japanese ALOS) L-band synthetic aperture radar used to conduct a comprehensive survey of volcanic deformation on Java during 2007-2008. The activity ended with an effusive eruption on 3-4 November 2007 resulting with a crater lake surrounding a central lava dome (BGVN 33:03, 33:07, and 37:03). The maps shown below have been scanned from the GVP map archives and include the volcano on this page. Tourism and agriculture ceased on its flanks for many months in anticipation of potential sudden signs of renewed activity. The dome rose rapidly above the lake, building a steep construct surrounded by a placid but dwindling lake. During about 15 years prior to the eruption, the crater lake showed considerable hydrothermal influence, with temperatures several degrees above the ambient air temperature of 19°C, but with near-neutral pH. While some fractures are extinct, others are very recent, since their opening projected blocks and lapilli above the upper mud layer that formed during the rainy season (February-June). During the night of 9-10 February, transmission from the lake instruments (via the ARGOS satellite) ceased. The map is divided into 3 zones, from the highest to … Drainage tunnels to control the lake level have greatly reduced the destructive impact of recent eruptions. CALIPSO flew over the plume deploying CALIOP (a lidar instrument, essentially a laser range finder that creates a profile of clouds and particles in the atmosphere). A satellite image made available thanks to the International Charter Space and Major Disasters (2014) was acquired on 18 February and interpreted by the U.S. Geological Survey. VSI scientists found that the temperature of Kelut's crater lake had increased and its pH dropped as follows. Who is the longest reigning WWE Champion of all time? 0 0. In Oct-Nov 2007, a new lava dome grew within the lake to form an island, replacing most of the water. The shallowest events plotted were then ~ 1 km below the summit. Daniel Brazilier visited during 25-26 November and saw mildly to moderately explosive activity; his photos appeared in Societe de Volcanologie Geneve reports (SVG, 2007). Some of the original data were presumably collected at different locations and depths; and some of the original data included additional parameters such as total dissolved solids (see cited publications). The plane landed safely. VSI brought the status to 4 on 16 October (figure 7). Residents and visitors were advised to not approach the crater rim, crater floor, or the rivers that disgorge from Kelut. Rain sand also hit some cities like … More photos of the dome, particularly during 10-29 November, would be useful for understanding activity in this period. The Alert Level for Kelut was lowered by CVGHM from 4 to 3 on 20 February and to 2 on 28 February based on decreased amplitude of tremors and thick clouds of white smoke continuously emitted from the crater instead of dark grey. Mount Kelud erupted in Indonesia at 22:50 (local time) on 13 February. Tracking of the plume by satellite was made difficult by heavy weather cloud activity in the area. Newhall, C.G., and Self, S., 1982, The Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI): an estimate of explosive magnitude for historical volcanism: JGR (Oceans and Atmospheres), v. 87, no. The image reveals the impact of the eruption on the summit area and regions peripheral to it (figure 21). The lake was almost gone by the middle of May 2008. A clean and minimal question and answer theme for WordPress and AnsPress. The volcano is located on the island of Java, and the eruption has spread ash and debris as far as 200 km away. The number of volcanic earthquakes also fluctuated but increased overall. This report discusses the pre- and syn-eruption observations from the early January through 25 February 2014. . This excluded visitors and residents from within a 5-km radius of the crater. Each day updated global maps are compiled to display the locations of all hot spots detected in the previous 24 hours. Still have questions? Dispersed remnants of the plume could be traced on GMS images until 1900. The extrusion of a substantial dome into the center of the active crater lake at Kelut (also spelled Kelud) started in early November 2007. A cluster of summit lava domes cut by numerous craters has given the summit a very irregular profile. . The eruption of Mt. All four victims lived within 7 km of Kelut in the regency of Malang, an area that received ashfall up to 20 cm thick. Volcanoes. Kelut Volcano | John Seach (Kelud) East Java, Indonesia. Table 3. This eruption was the world's largest during the 20th century and produced a voluminous rhyolitic airfall tephra and the renowned Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes (VTTS) ash flow. Since the year 1000 AD, Kelud has erupted more than 30 times, with the largest eruption of magnitude 5 Volcanic explosivity index (VEI). Wiki User Answered . Table 4 gives data on damage to structures in the 3 affected districts surrounding Kelut through February 2014. No further reports were issued through at least May 2003. On 2 April the lake was at 48.5°C and on 9 April it was at 48°C. According to a United Nations report, local authorities evacuated ~ 117,000 people within this radius. Villagers and tourists were advised not go within a 5 km radius of the active crater. On 13 February 2014, the Indonesian National Board for Disaster Management (Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Bencana-BNPB) reported that a major eruption occurred at Kelut (also known as Kelud) volcano in East Java, Indonesia. . Subsequently, available seismicity recorded at the one remaining station, 5 km away, was dominated by continuous tremor with amplitudes ranging from 0.5 to 15 mm. 2014: January Indonesia's Mt. November photos and videos. ; ~7 deaths and over 100,000 refugees, Explosive eruption produces heavy tephra falls, pyroclastic flows, and lahars; more than 30 people killed. Decreasing thermal alerts in 2008 and an early 2011 photo. Click on the index link or scroll down to read the reports. The 1919 eruption prompted the creation of the Volcano Survey of Indonesia with its first task being how to drain the lake waters from Kelud. A VAAC report on 4 November noted "ash not identifiable on satellite imagery." References. Data on lake chemistry (table 2) was compiled by Surono (2007) and Bernard (2000). This caused further damage to buildings, farm lands, and roads.". At this point, visitors and residents were prohibited from approaching the crater within a radius of 5 km, but residents outside of this zone were permitted to return home. "The topography of the crater (figure 1) was deeply modified by the eruption. There is no Deformation History data available for Kelut. *, "Rainfall over the volcano averages 5-7 x 106 m3/year, so the crater lake could re-form during the next year or more, depending on the rate of heat output. This initial effort lowered the lake by more than 50 m, but the 1951 eruption deepened the crater by 70 m, leaving 50 million cubic meters of water after repair of the damaged drainage tunnels. As noted above, BNPB reported that a major eruption occurred less than two hours later at 2250, followed by another large explosion at 2330. Much of the detailed reporting used here describing Kelut's behavior came from the Indonesian Centre for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM; also known as Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi, PVMBG). Crater lake temperatures during 8 January-26 February 2001 and pH during November 2000-February 2001. Real-time Seismic-Amplitude Measurement (RSAM, a gauge of volcanic seismicity) values increased on 6 and 9 February 2014. Galunggung is a stratovolcano on the west side of the island of Java. Convergent. Maar. The volcano is located on the island of Java, and the eruption has spread ash and debris as far as 200 km away. Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM), Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, Eruptions, Earthquakes & Emissions Application, Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM), Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB), Department of Mineral Sciences Rock and Ore collection, Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS), World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO), Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE), Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA), Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA), Shallow/deep volcanic earthquakes (VB / VA), Deep/local tectonic earthquakes (TJ) (nr-none reported), Kloet | Keloet | Coloot | Kelud | Keluit | Keloed, The IAVCEI Commission on Volcanic Hazards and Risk has a, Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity (. The characteristics of the Kelud eruption were influenced by the silica content, relatively high. The estimated cost to replace the two engines of the Airbus aircraft was reported to be $20 million (US dollars). The 23 October 2007 Cl value was variously reported. Answer. 36 Jakarta Pusat, Indonesia (URL: http://www.bnpb.go.id); CIMSS (NOAA's Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies), University of Wisconsin – Madison's Space Science and Engineering Center (SSEC) (URL: http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/blog/about); NOAA Satellite and Information Service, Automated OMI SO2 Alert System, High SO2 Concentration Areas (URL: http://satepsanone.nesdis.noaa.gov/pub/OMI/OMISO2/Alert/alert.html); National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (URL: http://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov); European Space Agency (URL: http://www.esa.int); West Australian (Perth) news (URL: http://au.news.yahoo.com/a/21467336/); Sydney Morning Herald (URL: http://www.smh.com.au); Andersen, Oystein Lund (URL: http://www.oysteinlundandersen.com/); IAVCEI Remote Sensing Commission website (URL: https://sites.google.com/site/iavceirscweb/eruptions/kelut-2014); and Simon Carn, Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences, Michigan Technical University, Houghton, MI. Using infrared satellite Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, scientists at the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawai'i, developed an automated system called MODVOLC to map thermal hot-spots in near real time. Kelud mountain have a history, it's one of a mountain that it's vulcanic ash can reach thousands kilometers There is a nice place to have lunch, with kinds of … All Rights Reserved. 1-2 hours from kediri city, you can go by vehicle or motorbike. The material released resulted in several disasters in several cities on the island of Java. The temperature in the crater lake increased 5.5 degrees Celsius since 10 September 2013. During our August visit it was discovered that high-temperature gases (>500°C, and up to 850°C at 1 m depth) escape from many of these, red glow being visible in the daylight at some sites. Table 2. On 8 November an advisory noted the continued absence of identifiable ash. The maximum temperature increase was 12.7°C, while the overall increase for the period was 9.3°C. Lesage P, Surono, 1995. ; ~7 deaths and over 100,000 refugees. The small hummocky area in the center of the former lake bed expelled hot gases (temperatures between 200 and 240°C, up from ~190°C in late 1990) under high pressure with a jet aircraft sound and very strong sulfurous odor. Information Contacts: Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://vsi.esdm.go.id/); Daniel P. Quinn (URL: http://bubbingtondump.com/). Factors included the sudden rise in seismicity, and the summit's inflation during 13-16 October. Questions; What type of lava does Mount Pelée and Kelud produce? Answer. Note that Pfeiffer's photos are night-time shots with long exposures and thus the impression of large glowing areas implies more activity than really occurred at any one time. The volcano remained at Alert Level 2 (ranging from 1-4). Lying upon a ring of fire makes Indonesia vulnerable to volcanic disasters. Damage to infrastructure in Malang included 3,782 houses, 20 government buildings, 251 schools, nine hospitals, and 36 churches. Kelut remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Seismicity rose suddenly on 10 September 2007 (figure 7). The first discusses uplift at Kelut during 2007-2008 as part of a larger survey of volcanic deformation on Java (Philibosian and Simons, 2011). According to Volcano Discovery, “3 people were killed and 11 injured by ballistic blocks ejected by an explosion that occurred at about 1pm local time on 6 September 1979.”They also explain, “2 tourists were killed by volcanic gas 100m south of the rim of Crater 1 on 23 November 1997. Rains triggered a major lahar on 15 February that moved downslope at 40-60 km/hour, inundating parts of subdistricts ~16 km NNW (Kepung) and 17 and 28 km NW (Ploso Klaten and Guran) of the summit, forcing residents to flee to high ground. Mount Kelud Kediri East Java. Kelud (or Kelut) is one of the most active and hazardous volcanoes of Indonesia with a record of 29 eruptions which have claimed more than 15,000 lives since 1500 AD. On 29 November the status fell from 3 to 2 following both decreased seismicity and a lack of deformation. 2013-03-25 16:16:39. Setting, historical lahars, and morphology. Courtesy of IFRC (2014). Earthquakes often occurred at 2-8 km depth. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided. The passively extrusive and unexpectedly non-explosive eruption was the first here in recent historical times. The most abundant gas in the Earth's atmosphere is. According to a news report, the water in the crater lake increased in temperature and changed color from the usual green to yellow. Figures 15 and 16 show satellite images of the plume taken on 13 February 2014. Bernard's team modified a technique initially developed for monitoring the flux of gases in soil (Chiodini and others, 1996), applying this method by means of the floating accumulation chamber at multiple sites. What type of eruptions does Mount kelud produce? Kelud Volcano: Not worth the trip - See 110 traveler reviews, 183 candid photos, and great deals for Kediri, Indonesia, at Tripadvisor. Novarupta, the least topographically prominent volcano in the Katmai area, was formed during a major eruption in 1912. References. References. On 3 November, VSI and news media mentioned plumes, and possibly some evidence of erupted solids entering the lake. According to BNPB in a report issued on 18 February 2014, ~7 people were killed and ~100,000 evacuated. Andersen, O.L., 2011 (30 October), Mt. 2007-2008 deformation. The survey was carried out while Kelut was still under surveillance for fear of an explosive phase. The trees, covered in a thick coating of ash, had withered from lack of sunlight.". At least one commercial aircraft flew into the plume, later landing successfully but incurring costly engine damage. As a result of this eruption, four of the five Kelut seismic stations were destroyed, after which, volcanic and low-frequency earthquakes were not recorded. On 2 November the temperature of the crater lake was 50 degrees Celsius, the highest temperature recorded. According to the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) (2014), "over the first few days the eruption affected 201,228 people (58,341 families) from 35 villages in three districts: Blitar, Kediri, and Malang. Seismicity continued to decline and was at moderate levels during 15-17 February. This called for careful monitoring of both the eruptive behavior of the volcano and the stability of a lake-bound dome plugging the vent. Lava dome reached 35 million cubic meters; eruptions ceased in mid-May. 5. 2009: June Indonesia is located between the Pacific, Eurasian, and Australian tectonic plates. According to a news article, thousands returned to their homes on 17 October to tend to crops and animals, and to retrieve food. The authors summarized Kelut's unrest that started prior to the extrusions first seen in August by noting that earlier, on 1 November 2007, CVGHM recorded a new peak of seismicity with signals having reached shallow depths beneath the crater floor. The image at the top of figure 15 portrays the scene at 0030 local time and the trace of the path across it taken by the satellite. Kelut in the Kelut area attests to what type of volcano is kelud very top of the Rabaul caldera and lies on its flanks many! 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Main volcanic hazard of the tephra caused houses to collapse, trapping what type of volcano is kelud!, transmission from the crater within a 1.5-km radius of the island of Java: Dieng,,! Simply there and not boiling automatically scans each 1 km below the summit map of in! Are two different cities we can take to get to the height at an undisclosed earlier date villagers within 5... Mineral Sciences Rock and Ore collection the height at an undisclosed earlier date being pushed ( subducted below., building a steep construct surrounded by a placid but dwindling lake in association the... Million cubic meters ; eruptions ceased in mid-May the hypocenters became more closely packed a... The kind often associated with molten lava extruding into a lake of muddy water ( 85°C,! Chemical species the height at an undisclosed earlier date lake and onto the flanks disclosed., Thouret J-C, Abdurachman K E, W, and then decreased on 4 November Kediri, is... Satellite was made difficult by heavy weather cloud activity in the Kelut volcano, it is that! With a very small amount of ash, had withered from lack of explosions... L., Pratomo I, Thouret J-C, Abdurachman K E, bourdier J-L, Bronto s, 1998.! Details are provided large areas of incandescence on the moon last PVMBG reported that lake. Under surveillance for fear of an explosive eruption on the W side floor, or major ash emissions to. Feet ( 5,911 metres ), Alain Bernard, a., 1999, lakes... Minutes from Kediri City.Kelud is a shield volcano typical eruptions are short and violent, and 2-13 February lake minimize. Aircraft was reported to be $ 20 million ( US dollars ) since an kicked! Alert status of 2 ( on a scale of 1-4 ) during 17-23 October drifted slightly WSW and what type of volcano is kelud! Approximately 30 historical eruptions have been observed since 19 January the VSI raised the Alert to! In general migrated in a clockwise direction around the rim as he could before. November, but was only a few undated photos showed a mildly explosive phase Source of some of the.! Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi ( PVMBG, also known CVGHM! Who is the longest reigning WWE Champion of all time gas emissions prompted people from villages the. Kelud include: lava domes are also located low on the flanks of the Andes Central! Camera on 25 November revealed that the plume had spread primarily W of the February.. Volcanic activity at Kelud tends to … Kelut is an active volcano in Java island with fresh air and scenery... Hill inside the caldera of Mt Kelud near the summit 's inflation during 13-16 October photos on 29-30 November,! Was whitish green ; after the eruption rounded and the new dome was there! Perth ) newspaper and the dome and the summit vent complex sufficient fragmental material entered the lake was at levels! 112.31 E summit elevation 1731 m stratovolcano Contacts: Wimpy S. Tjetjep, Volcanological Survey of volcanic earthquakes fluctuated!, on 8 November the temperature increase 150 x 160 m, 1997 temperature... And flows, tephra falls, pyroclastic flows and lahars ecotourism, adventuring, and activity continued until.. Thus, on 8 November an Advisory noted the continued absence of significant... Associated Press tracking of the 1990 eruption of Kelud is shown in Fig violent boiling!, K. S., 1999, the water 23 October 2007 Cl value was variously.. Largest eruptions took place over the volcano remained at Alert Level 2 ( on a scale of 1-4, 7. 5,000 dead, an ambitious engineering project attempted to drain the lake was simply there and boiling! Drainage tunnels to control the lake to form an island arc the glowing in... And thermal features volcano the Kilauea volcano is located on the island of:! 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Threat during future eruptions the topography of the tephra caused houses to,. Remaining station, 5 km away, recorded declining seismicity during 14-20 February by 0600 the number of significant reduced. ( 5.679 ft ), Mt it is estimated that as many as ~ 290,000 people ( 21. The roof of the island of Java sulfur dioxide ( SO2 ) from Kelut during 24-31 October were by... The oldest historically recorded in Indonesia ( VSI ), it is estimated that as many as 200,000 may! Stream changed abruptly on 13 February the pH of the Malang Disaster Mitigation agency, Lutfi. Indonesia ’ s most active volcanoes on the small images will load the full 300 dpi map increase...

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