There are suggestions on the review page for improving the article. Peoples Democratic Party of Afghanistan has a communist-like flag. His assassination by an unidentified person or people led to the overthrow of Mohammed Daoud Khan's republic, and to the advent of a socialist regime in Afghanistan, the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan. [57], A major problem throughout PDPA's rule was that the majority of mid-level cadres resided in Kabul, rather than the places they were responsible for. [61] A little over a year later, the membership was estimated to stand between 10,000 and 15,000. During the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan, the government of the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) reformed the education system; education was stressed for both sexes, and widespread literacy programmes were set up. The vote, however, was close, and Taraki in turn tried to neutralize Karmal by appointing new members to the committee who were his own supporters. Under Karmal's leadership, the Parchamite PDPA participated in Mohammad Daoud Khan's rise to power in 1973, and his subsequent regime. Panjsheri was usually identified as a Khalq by fellow Afghan politicians, while outside observers said he was creating his own PDPA group under the name Gruhi Kar. In 1978 and 1979, the PDPA began to institute a series of radical social reforms dealing with land tenure, education, and women's rights. [51] As in the CPSU, the Politburo was the main executive and legislative body of the PDPA when the congress, conference nor the Central Committee were in session. These reforms, coupled with the PDPA's strong antireligious and anticlerical position, proved too progressive for Afghans accustomed to the traditional social system, and by 1979 the Islamic opposition had begun to mount an aggressive guerrilla war against the government. Eventually the PDPA was able to get three of its members into parliament, in the first free elections in Afghan history; these three parliamentarians were Karmal, Anahita Ratebzad, Nur Ahmed Nur. When the People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan came to power in Afghanistan in the year 1978, Mohammad Najibullah was made the Afghan Ambassador to Iran. Babrak Karmal was an Afghan politician who was installed as President of Afghanistan by the Soviet Union when they intervened in 1979. Archives. He was one of the leading organizers of the Saur Revolution which overthrew the government of Mohammad Daoud Khan. [51] All decisions of the Politburo were implemented by the Secretariat, a body concurrently in session with the Politburo. The revolution resulted in the creation of a government with Nur Muhammad Taraki as President, and was the precursor to the 1979 intervention by the Soviets and the 1979–1989 Soviet–Afghan War against the Mujahideen. He served as the acting leader of the country for three days when the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) took power and declared the foundation of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan, before handing over power to PDPA leader Noor Mohammad Taraki. In 1978 he, Hafizullah Amin and Babrak Karmal initiated the Saur Revolution and established the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan. Taraki and Karmal maintained close contact with the Soviet Embassy and its personnel in Kabul, and it appears that Soviet Military Intelligence ( Glavnoye Razvedyvatel'noye Upravleniye – GRU) assisted Khalq's recruitment of military officers. [50] He reinstated 14 members (including himself), who had been purged by either Taraki or Amin, appointed 15 newcomers and retained 7 Amin appointees. Four members of the party won seats in that year's parliamentary elections, reduced to two seats in 1969, albeit both before parties were fully legal. USSR. . But, soon, a power struggle broke out within the party between the two factions—the Parcham, to which Najibullah belonged, and the Khalq. After a few years in that occupation, he went to the United States to study. [16] The new constitution alienated Daoud from many of his political allies. PDPA stands for People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (also Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer and 25 more ) What is the abbreviation for People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan? The PDPA led by Nur Muhammad Taraki established the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan which would last until 1987. The republic lasted until 1992 after mujahideen rebels took over; the PDPA dissolved, with some officials joining the new government, some joining militias, and others deserting. His successor as president was Haji Mohammad Chamkani. Date of … The Khalqs accused the Parchams of allegiance to King Mohammed Zahir Shah because their newspaper, the Parcham, was tolerated by the king and therefore published from March 1968 – July 1969. [20]. Under the leadership of Mohammad Najibullah in 1990, the party's name was changed to Homeland Party (حزب وطن, Hezb-e Watan) and much of the party's communist symbols and policies were altered or removed. Hammond, Thomas T. Red Flag over Afghanistan: The Communist Coup, the Soviet Invasion, and the Consequences. The list of acronyms and abbreviations related to PDPA - Peoples Democratic Party of Afghanistan [15] After Daoud had seized power, he established Daoud's Republic of Afghanistan. If we take into account the meaning of the word “martyr” in some Islamic circles, that is a problematic statement. [46] These descriptions led Western authors to label PDPA as either of "clear Marxist orientation", [46] "an avowedly pro-Soviet socialist movement", [47] or reformist "with a socialist bent". The new government launched a campaign, mostly at Pul-e-Charkhi prison. People’s Democratic Party (PDP), Nigerian political party founded in August 1998 by members of numerous groups and organizations, including the groups known as G-18 and G-34. Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. see also © 2019 Encyclopedia.com | All rights reserved. Wladislaw Gomulka (1905-1982) ruled Poland for 14 years as first secretary of the Communist party. sfn error: no target: CITEREFAmstutz1984 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFGiustozzi2000 (, Democratic Youth Organisation of Afghanistan, Head of the Military Revolutionary Council, Politburo of the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan, Democratic Youth Organization of Afghanistan, "Internal Refugees: Flight to the Cities", "Afghanistan: Blood-Stained Hands: II. [9] [13], Karmal sought, unsuccessfully, to persuade the PDPA Central Committee to censure Taraki's excessive extreme radicalism. In 1966 he published the first issue of Khalq, a party newspaper, but the government closed it down shortly afterward. [61] Half of the members in 1982, were in the armed forces (which was dominated by the Khalqists). The People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) was formed in the period of constitutional reform in Afghanistan (1963 – 1973) during which parliamentary elections were held and political parties were allowed to organize. Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA). [42] The coup failed and Tanai was forced to flee the country. It ruled Afghanistan until 1992, when its last president, Najibullah, resigned and Kabul was taken over by Islamic rebels. Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. [47] The radical reform program, class-struggle, anti-imperialistic rhetoric, support of countries such as Cuba and North Korea, the signing of a friendship treaty with the Soviet Union, increased presence of Soviet advisers in the country, and support of countries like Cuba and North Korea led to the international media and domestic opponents giving the label of 'communist' to the PDPA. All support for the Republic of Afghanistan stopped. The People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) (Persian: حزب دموکراتيک خلق افغانستان ‎‎, Hezb-e dimÅ«krātÄ©k-e khalq-e Afghānistān, Pashto: د افغانستان د خلق دموکراټیک ګوند ‎, Da Afghanistān da khalq dimukrātÄ«k gund) was a socialist party established on 1 January 1965. Assadullah Sarwari is an Afghan former politician and convicted war criminal who belonged to the Khalq faction of the communist People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA). Only one politburos was formally elected; at the 1st Congress, despite this, the membership line-up was altered numerous times during the PDPA's existence. [62] Before the 1973 coup led by Mohammad Daoud Khan, the vast majority of members either had "graduates of junior colleges or colleges", with many of them either being students or working in the public sector. The Pakistani prime minister, Imran Khanm called recently to Osama Bin Laden a martyr in a discourse. It was also responsible for the radical reforms and brutal dissident crackdowns that encouraged the rebellion of the religious segments present in the Afghan society, which led to the creation of the Mujahideen and, eventually, to the Soviet military intervention in December 1979. [58] Another problem, in Faryab province the PDPA was inactive and the majority of the locals believed that Mohammad Daoud Khan, the president which the communists overthrew in 1978, was still ruling the country. What people are saying - Write a review. [60] However, author Bruce Amstutz believes that PDPA membership probably stood at around 6,000 when Karmal took power. [21] Shortly after a massive protest against the government during the funeral ceremonies of Khaibar, most of the leaders of PDPA were arrested by the government. [61] Earlier that year, in March, Soviet sources stated that the largest concentration of PDPA members were to be found in Kabul Polytechnic Institute (with an estimated 600 members) and at Kabul University (with an estimated 1,000 members). December 31, 2019 40 Years After His Death, Hafizullah Amin Casts a Long Shadow in Afghanistan By Christopher Solomon. In 1979 he named himself as president, prime minister, and chairman of the Khalq wing. [58] Another case, that of Nangrahar province (in which the government was in complete control) faced a similar problem; the party organization laying dormant. Political Party Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. The People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan described the Saur Revolutionas a democratic revolution signifying "a victory of the honourable working people of Afghanistan" and the "manifestation of the real will and interests of workers, peasants and toilers." These roles included: doctors, nurses, and teachers. From inside the book . [57] Concurrently, a threefold increase in visits by central party personnel to the provinces occurred, in another bid to strengthen the party's contact with the PDPA's lower-level and non-members alike. In Afghanistan: Mohammad Zahir Shah (1933–73) …such group was the Marxist People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA), the major leftist organization in the country. The Democratic Republic of Afghanistan (DRA), covers the period when the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) ruled the country. ." https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/peoples-democratic-party-afghanistan, "People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan [19] There are no facts proving that the Soviets provided financial help to either Khalqis or Parchamis. [57] Another daunting problem was that the central party leadership had little contact with lower-level organizations in the provinces or, in general, with the people. Taraki was the first secretary-general of the party's central committee, and Babrak Karmal was its first deputy secretary-general. //. Nur Muhammad Taraki was an Afghan communist statesman during the Cold War who served as President of Afghanistan from 1978 to 1979. Hafizullah Amin, the second PDPA Afghan President, had seen his leftist beliefs strengthened during his studies in the United States in the late 1950s. However, their Marxism was often a vehicle for tribal resentments. The Parcham faction supported this idea because they felt that Afghanistan was not industrialized enough to undergo a true proletarian revolution as called for in the Communist Manifesto. "People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan amin, hafizullah; This in turn led to the reformation of the PDPA in 1977, and Karmal played a major role in the 1978 Saur Revolution when the PDPA took power, though in later years he denounced it. Political party that organized 1945–1946 revolt to form an autonomous republic for Kurds in Iran. Ghulam Dastagir Panjsheri was an Afghan communist politician and public servent. He served twice as Chairman of the Council of Ministers during the 1980s, from 1981 to 1988 and from 1989 to 1990 in the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan. The single-member plurality electoral system was used. [52] 6 members from the Amin period were either executed or disappeared, and Karmal turned the Politburo into a Parcham-dominated body. The Economist (London), 11 September 1979, p.44. [56] Out of Afghanistan's fifty-five border districts, fifteen of them lacked a primary party organization (PPO), another nineteen had only one PPO in each district, and in the remaining twenty-one the party, while better organized, remained ineffective. When the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) was formed, Karmal became one of its leading members, having been introduced to Marxism by Mir Akbar Khyber during his imprisonment for activities deemed too radical by the government. [58] The Social Science Institute of the PDPA had a capacity of 2,500 students, and by the end of the 1980s it had given degrees to over 10,000 individuals. Later in March 1990 Defense Minister and Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces Shahnawaz Tanai tried to seize power in a military coup. The Revolutionary Council of the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) ruled the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan from 1978 until its collapse in 1992. karmal, babrak; The Policy of National Reconciliations and Confrontation in the Watan' Party (The Former Peoples Democratic Party of Afghanistan): The Realities: Thoughts and Deeds [Faqir Mohammad Wadan] on Amazon.com. THE CONSTITUTION OF THE PEOPLE`S DEMOCRATIC PARTY. [54] For instance, the party had the International Relations Commission, responsible for PDPA's relations with other parties, the Organization Commission, responsible for personnel appointments nationwide, [54] and the Defense and Judicial Commission, responsible for military policy. [12] These new divisions started because of ideological and economic reasons. It was also the name of the leftist newspaper produced by the same movement. [46], From its inception in 1965 until at least 1984, the PDPA labeled themselves "national democratic" (not 'communist'); however, in its view of international relations, the PDPA was clearly pro-Soviet oriented. The first signs of a rebellion appeared on July 20, 1978 in the far eastern provinces of Nuristan and Kunar. Although its ideology, judging by the early literature, could be characterized as national democratic and progressive, later, after 1978, the PDPA became openly Marxist, with strong Leninist tendencies. [57] Of the 10,000 mid-level cadres in the mid-1980s, 5,000 of them resided in Kabul. A party history in 1976 stated: the party struggles against imperialism, particularly American imperialism and its ally, Maoism, and is fighting alongside our brother parties, foremost among them the Leninist party of the Soviet Union. [36], In the 1979 Soviet Operation Storm-333, the Soviet special force Spetnaz stormed the Tajbeg Palace and killed President Hafizullah Amin. Amin was born in Paghman and educated at Kabul University, after which he started his career as a teacher. This article is of interest to … [23] With the help of the Afghan air force led by Colonel Abdul Qadir, the insurgent troops overcame the resistance of the Presidential Guard, assassinated Daoud, and killed most members of his family. [50] During Hafizullah Amin's short rule, September–December 1979, the Central Committee had at most 33 members, 12 of which were appointed by him. On the eve of the coup, the Afghan police did not send Amin to immediate imprisonment, as it did with the three Politburo members and Taraki on 25 April 1978. Bitter resentment between the Khalq and Parcham factions eventually led to the failure of the government of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan that was formed as a result of the Saur Revolution in 1978. 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